# Cost Plus Pricing = No Good

People sometimes ask me “how should I price my product?” so I Googled it. I found a LOT of blog posts about pricing. A surprising number recommend “cost plus” pricing. How much does it cost to make your product? How much do you have to sell it for to make money? They say “Sell it for more than that.”

It’s well known that “cost plus” pricing doesn’t work for enterprise software. In fact, it doesn’t work for most high value products of any type.

The alternative to “cost plus” pricing is “value-based” pricing. A few people recommend this. And then they don’t say much about what that means.

Let’s explore this idea a bit more, and see what we can learn.

# The customer’s perspective

Of course, the customer cares zero, not one iota, NOTHING, about your problems with making money. OK, they might care a tiny little bit if they want you to be around to support them. But they don’t care very much. It is not their problem if you make money or not based on choosing the wrong pricing.

But customers do care about something. In so many words, the customer has a problem. The problem is costing the customer some amount of money or time or business friction. They are looking for a solution to that problem. Your product may provide a solution to that problem. That’s what the customer cares about – solving a problem.

The first rule of pricing is:

Your product must cost less than the problem costs the customer. No customer will pay more to solve a problem than the problem is costing them.

Corollary: If your product doesn’t solve a problem the customer needs to solve, it *cannot* be successful.

But the customer has other concerns, not just about the price of your product:

- Your product represents a big
*risk*to them. Does your solution solve their problem? It looks like it does, but until they put it into production, they won’t know for sure. That risk makes your product worth less, until they are confident it solves their problem. - Your product represents a big
*change management cost*. Their current solution or lack of solution to the business problem is costly. Your product may completely solve that business problem. But the cost of moving from their legacy solution to your solution will be significant. In some cases the cost of putting a new solution in place can outweigh the benefits of the new solution, irrespective of its price. - Your product represents an
*opportunity cost*. The business problem you solve is not their only business problem. By buying your solution they won’t be able to buy a solution to some other business problem.

# The Value Inequality

If you put all these customer concerns together into kind of some math, you get the following inequality:

V > P + R + M + C

The customer will only buy your solution if:

The value (*V*) the customer gets from your solution is greater than the price (*P*) of the solution plus the risk factor (*R*) that the solution will or will not work plus the cost of migrating (*M*) to your solution plus the opportunity cost (*C*) of not using that money to solve some other problem.

I call this the “Value Inequality.”

To buy your solution, the value the customer gets (solving the business problem) must be greater than all these costs combined.

And to make your sales easier, strive to ensure the value the customer gets from your solution is MUCH greater than the price of the solution. (In math terms:

V >> P + R + M + C

As product managers we have some control over all the terms in that inequality. In the next installment I’ll give you concrete ways to get this inequality working in your favor.

# Three Things You Can Do Today

In the meantime, here are three things you can do today to start using these ideas.

- Put yourself in your customer’s shoes. What are the risks, change management costs, and opportunity costs they perceive with your product? Be specific. You should be able to come up with ten or more items.
- Start from the risks you found in step one. Find three ideas for reducing the customer’s risk of implementing your product. For example, do you have successful customers already? Can you use the story of their success to reduce the fear of a new customer?
- Find three ideas for increasing the customer’s perception of your product’s value. Again, you might be able to use the experience of existing customers. Get a good story from an existing customer about the value they experienced when they implemented your product. Or maybe your product has features whose value is not described well in your sales and marketing.

I’d love to hear your feedback on this idea. Have you used a model like this for pricing?